Assignment Two

Hybrid Cloud Computing: Same issues, New Generation

Security

Due to these security issues, regulation and legality become also Political. Government must intervene to mediate between the protection of the citizens data and the warranty of their access to the services provided by big corporations (and their terms and conditions). In this sense, the European Union (EU) has made several attempts to retain privacy in The Cloud through data protection agencies whom must approve third party organisations outside of the EU, providing guidelines they must follow when receiving the data of a member living in any EU country (Winkler, 2011). But, outside of the EU, it is harder to regulate the organisation and countries wherein the data is stored. Mitchell (2012) states the laws of some countries give them the power to confiscate data stored within their borders, this will give them power to sell or access the data and to leverage the capitalist system. Hence, abolishing security and trust of Cloud platforms as well as creating a demand for regulation within the Cloud industries. Furthermore, due to an unregulated Cloud system the data stored is upheld to a lesser standard of law allowing law enforcement and state surveillance agencies to access the data without search warrants. So, via keeping an unregulated system the government also gains access to data that if regulated would be subject to privacy issues. Kshetri (2013) indicates that a lack of cloud-related legal systems and enforcement mechanisms, privacy, security and ownership issues fall into legally gray areas but that previous generations of Cloud technologies regulations favour cloud providers. Therefore, the regulations are unclear and more regulatory frameworks need to be put in place to fix security issues and hold Cloud computing to a higher standard, which will lead individuals to trust in the Cloud platform.

Digital Enclosures

Andrejevic’s (2009) argues that today’s society is mediated by convenience of digital technology, therefore information about the consumers becomes subject to commercial capture. He refers to “function creep” which is the widening of a technology or system beyond the purpose for which it is intended, such as the breach of privacy in the Cloud system. This demonstrates that The Cloud is a data mine for law enforcement and state surveillance agencies which they want to gain access too. Richard Thomas-UK information commissioner (2009) implies that consumers have “sleepwalked into a surveillance society” (2009). Andrejevic (2009) discusses the digital capitalism era which he suggests reproduces existing economic relationships through the generations of new privately controlled productive platforms and resources, the development of the Hybrid Cloud environment allows for organisations and countries to privately control, store and access personal data to improve or create economic relationships therefore, this system is part of the digital capitalism era. Consequently, this raises the issue of a surveillance society and can be considered as a societal implication. By mass storing our data enclosures are created, which allows us to fenced in and monitored. The digital enclosure echoes Bentham’s Panopticon (McMullan, 2015), the internet/data centers are the guard tower and society are the monitored, submissive prisoner.

A Look to The Future

Theorists have written little on the future as security, privacy, third-party access and regulatory issues have taken centre stage however, studies have been completed using questionnaires, asking experts in the technology industry about the future of The Cloud. Anderson and Rainie’s (2010) study results suggest that Cloud computing will become more dominant than the desktop in the next decade due to its ease of access on any device, anywhere. They suggest that browsers will act as the Cloud interface, allowing people to access and store data with ease. It will be weaved into everyday life, as Weiser predicted- an epoch of ubiquitous computing. Furthermore, it is expected that data centers will be smaller, with servers able to hold more information although, experts believe privacy will still be an issue. It is difficult to predict the future, Hybrid Cloud Computing is a step forward but progress is slow…and could easily get creepy.

Conclusion

To summarise, security is the biggest issue organisations face, in developing The Cloud. The regulations are based on software of the past, and can easily be affected by the laws of singular country’s. However, these security issues serve as a hindrance of The Cloud as individuals and organisations are less likely to trust Cloud services. The Cloud is everywhere, it’s a ubiquitous technology that exists around us with many people beginning to use it for example, students using google docs to produce group work. This clearly indicates that Weiser’s prediction, the third wave of computing has begun. But, the progress into the future is slow and unpredictable so, there is little speculation on this technology and some experts believe that desktops and The Cloud will combine hence, the third wave of computing may alter from Weiser’s vision.

References

Anderson, J., & Lee, R. (2010, June). The future of cloud computing. pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1484000930&Signature=p4rLT4SnKQv194b99Con/7NcK7A=&response content disposition=inline; filename=The future of cloud computing. Retrieved from http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/7135848/the-future-of-cloud-computing.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1484000930&Signature=p4rLT4SnKQv194b99Con%2F7NcK7A%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DThe_future_of_cloud_computing.pdf

Andrejevic, M. (2009). Privacy, exploitation, and the digital enclosure. Amsterdam Law Forum, 1(4), 47–62. Retrieved from http://amsterdamlawforum.org/article/view/94/168

Dourish, P., & Bell, G. (2011). Divining a digital future: Mess and mythology in ubiquitous computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

HPE. (2016, November 29). HPE and Microsoft advance their collaboration around Microsoft azure to accelerate hybrid cloud adoption Retrieved from https://www.hpe.com/us/en/newsroom/news-archive/featured-article/2016/11/HPE-and-

Microsoft-Advance-Their-Collaboration-Around-Microsoft-Azure-to-Accelerate-Hybrid-Cloud-Adoption.html

Kshetri, N. (2013). Privacy and security issues in cloud computing: The role of institutions and institutional evolution. Telecommunications Policy, 37(4–5), 372–386. doi:10.1016/j.telpol.2012.04.011

Kuyoro, S. O., IbIkunle, F., & Awodele, O. (2011). Cloud Computing Security Issues and Challenges. International Journal of Computer Networks, 3(5), 247–255. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kresimir_Popovic/publication/224162841_Cloud_computing_security_issues_and_challenges/links/5694ae1308ae820ff072d1ab.pdf

McMullan, T. (2015, July 23). What does the panopticon mean in the age of digital surveillance? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/jul/23/panopticon-digital-surveillance-jeremy-bentham

Mell, P., & Grance, T. (2011). The NIST definition of cloud computing recommendations of the national institute of standards and technology special publication 800-145. Retrieved from http://faculty.winthrop.edu/domanm/csci411/Handouts/NIST.pdf

Microsoft News Center (2015, December 1). Hewlett Packard enterprise and Microsoft announce plans to deliver integrated hybrid IT infrastructure. [online]. Retrieved from https://news.microsoft.com/2015/12/01/hewlett-packard-enterprise-and-microsoft-announce-plans-to-deliver-integrated-hybrid-it-infrastructure/#sm.0000lg287qbezdolyzr1cwcsfb87c#efWrKsfc3hsIz7K2.97

Mitchell, R. B. (2012). ASSOCIATION OF BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMS. Retrieved from http://www.abis-fbd.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/ABIS-2012-Proceedings-Complete.pdf#page=97

Swapna, K., & Gupta, P. (2016). Cloud computing: Security issues and challenges. AADYA -National Journal of Management and Technology (NJMT), 3(2), 149–154. Retrieved from http://52.172.159.94/index.php/AADYA/article/view/103601/74010

Winkler, V. (2011). Securing the cloud: Cloud computer security techniques and tactics. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Wubx13ADbcoC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=%E2%80%9CSecuring+the+Cloud:+Cloud+Computer+Security+Techniques+and+Tactics&ots=oz9wiIDH1c&sig=jmHrE8XDxBdSICiUv1gwT863dVc#v=onepage&q&f=true

Zissis, D., & Lekkas, D. (2012). Addressing cloud computing security issues. Future Generation Computer Systems, 28(3), 583–592. doi:10.1016/j.future.2010.12.006

Hybrid Cloud Computing: Same issues, New Generation

Assignment Two

Hybrid Cloud Computing: Same issues, New Generation

In the next section of my theoretical discussion about the development of Hybrid Cloud Computing, I will discuss the implications of this technology on security- questioning whether our data is safe and secure and data privacy, political implications- how this technology is legislated and utilised via the government and the problems around where the ‘data center’ physically is. Andrejevic’s (2009) digital enclosure is defined as the “creation of an interactive realm wherein every action, interaction and transaction generates information about itself…” and that as customers participate in the new digital enclosures, it opens you up to surveillance and monitoring. Finally, I will discuss the future of cloud computing before summarising my discussion.

 

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The Issues with Cloud Computing

Privacy

A major issue in Cloud Computing is security. Kuyoro, IbIkunle and Awodele (2011) imply most cloud computing services are provided by a third-party provider whom owns the infrastructure thereby, having access to stored data which they may use for capital gain in their own organisations. It is important for trust in a Cloud environment, which has been slow to gain by those producing Cloud platforms as individuals and organisations prefer to be in strict control of their own information while a Cloud platform removes that control placing data on servers around the world. Zissis and Lekkas (2012) state it is “impossible to place a virtual moat around an organisations castle…ability to clearly identify, authenticate, authorise who or what is accessing the assets of an organisation…” inferring that it is impossible to completely secure the data organisations store on the cloud and, that Cloud organisations or the third-parties who store the data need access to keep your data secure further, implying trust is important in the Cloud environment.

There is a threat of data compromise as more parties, devices and applications are accessing the stored data. This is because the more access points to the data, the less secure it becomes which allows hackers/criminals and uninvited organisations access to the stored data. Also, a question around ownership, arises in the analysis of security. Kannankott and Gupta (2016) say that the person who uploaded or stored the data, owns the data however, they have no control where the data is placed within the Cloud environment. Furthermore, they analyse data privacy regarding this question of ownership and indicate multiple legal concerns: for instance, when the data is moved around the system by crossing jurisdictions. Data location is important in consideration of security issues because it is subject to privacy laws in the country it resides, but not necessarily in the place where the headquarters are stationed (Winkler, 2011). Developers in Hybrid Cloud Computing claim this system gives the customer more control however, these security issues such as privacy, data location and third-party access have plagued each version of Cloud Computing hence, it is probable it will plague the next generation of Cloud software too. Through accessing customer’s private data-a breach of privacy, or allowing third-parties to, security carries also ethical implications consumers should consider.

Please click here to continue reading my commentary on Hybrid Cloud Computing

Assignment Two

Hybrid Cloud Computing: Same issues, New Generation

Introduction

Hybrid Cloud Computing is the next generation of Cloud software, it is the future of The Cloud. Hybrid Cloud Computing is the mixture of Public Cloud services, with Private Cloud Services. Yet, each embodiment of The Cloud receives the same critiques. They are still being debated now ultimately, affecting the development of Hybrid Cloud Computing. Theorists have debated many issues including state surveillance and monitoring (Andrejevic, 2009), risk of data breeches including hackers (Kuyoro, IbIkunle & Awodele, 2011), a question of trust in the Cloud infrastructure including confidentiality and privacy- who have access to the data (Zissis and Lekkas, 2012), and the secondary use of data (Winkler, 2011). Firstly, you must understand what Cloud Computing is, at a basic level it is “data centers or server farms” (Kerr and Tang, 2012). Mell and Grance (2011) expand upon this stating it is “…a shared pool of configurable computing resources e.g. networks, services, storage, application and services”. In simple terms, if you run a business and acquire a lot of data which needs storing, take pictures on your mobile or tablets or create a document that you need access to later, it can be saved to ‘The Cloud’. It’s a set of servers, in a big room somewhere (data centers), which hold all your data allowing you to have access to it creating a feeling that technology is everywhere, can be accessed anywhere, at any time. It is a ubiquitous technology.

Ubiquitous Computing is considered as the third wave of computing, it is the period in technology where it recedes into the background so, Cloud Computing is a ubiquitous technology. Mell and Grance (2011) suggest this within their analysis “a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access…” hence, the epoch of ubiquitous computing has begun within the technological world. Dourish and Bell (2011:9) quote Weiser (1991) describing ubiquitous technologies as “the most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are

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My Cloud Software

indistinguishable from it”. The Cloud platform has ‘weaved’ itself into everyday life for example, when you purchase a laptop Cloud software is offered as part of your deal, or comes readily installed onto the computer. Knowhow offer cloud services as part of purchasing their insurance for your laptops.

Over a year ago, Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) and Microsoft announced their partnership and plans to develop Hybrid Cloud Computing through Microsoft Azure- Microsoft’s Cloud using HPE’s infrastructure and services. Microsoft News Center (2015) published an article providing details of their partnership, claiming their aim is to help customers optimise their IT environments through Hybrid Cloud Computing. To solidify their partnership to the public, two software programs were released during their partnership announcement. They are HPE Converged 250 for Microsoft Cloud Platform System and HPE Flexible Capacity and Support for Azure demonstrating they had begun working towards the next generation of Cloud Computing beforehand, producing working support systems. Schwartz (2015) describes the HPE Converged 250 for Microsoft Cloud Platform System as “…a converged rack mountable system designed to run Microsoft Azure within the data center” simply the beginning stages of producing a Cloud Platform out of their two services. However, technology-based blogs run by experts indicate that there have been concerns about the partnership such as the similarity to Amazon Web Services whom are also producing Hybrid Cloud Computing demonstrating that they are not the first to attempt to bring Cloud Computing into the next generation. Also, the market for Cloud software and platforms is continuously developing, with competitors bringing new products to sell to consumers which has left some concerns that both organisations may fall behind in the market.

Around five months ago, at a Discover London Tech Conference representatives from the partnership made three announcements about their progress in the Hybrid Cloud environment which will be released later this year. Firstly, new enhancements to HPE Flexible Capacity and Support for Azure that will coincide with the Azure Stack Release, to include support for it. Secondly, HPE/Azure Stack Solution that they have built on a ProLiant DL380 Server- a complete compute storage, network and software system. It has been explained as an “integrated system that will deliver Azure-compatible infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) and platform-as-a-service (PaaS) to businesses from their on-premises data center’s (HPE, 2016). IaaS and PaaS are the service models, which The Cloud service is built as for example, you could purchase a Cloud service which offers ‘platforms’ to you as the customer. Thirdly, HPE Oneview and Microsoft Operations Management Suite and this allows the customer to retain visibility and control across their Hybrid Cloud System.

Click here to continue reading my commentary on Hybrid Cloud Computing…

Assignment One

Critical Reflexive Analysis: ShakeItUp

ShakeItUp is a social media platform, created by Katie Furness, Sophie Antunes and Stephanie Watson (myself) who form KSS Productions. Our idea was to create a social media platform, geared towards cultural diversity, to be used by university students where a cultural barricade is most evident.

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Originally, ShakeItUp was designed as a mobile application however; I was worried about producing a working prototype which included the features Sophie envisioned. Upon further research, an Entrepreneur article stated that we should find a technological expert to create the application. No-one in the group had a technological background or knew someone so, I suggested we develop the product into a social media platform enabling us to use Ryan, Katie’s experienced, technologically minded friend.

We met weekly, enabling us to choose tasks to complete for the next meeting while keeping updated on the progress of our prototype. But, I forgot to complete all the content in the first week, which led to issues on pitch day. Although, I did enjoy researching cocktails/mocktails and their histories, giving me ideas for next time I fancy making drinks in our student house. Watch out housemates, you’ll be my testers. Sophie forgot to research into the legal issues leading to myself, taking the responsibility on while creating our pitch presentation and script which led me to feel that I had contributed more than the others to our presentation. I did enjoy the research aspect despite my feelings, as I found some rather interesting journals and it allowed me to visit my own little happy-research world- I enjoy researching immensely. A key decision within our group was to film ourselves making cocktails/mocktails to demonstrate the products interactivity and enabled the group to bond as we could not stop laughing every time something was spilled or did not taste quite right. Just so you know, red grape fruit juice is not an okay substitution for white grape fruit juice…

Communication is an issue within KSS because we only saw the finished prototype on presentation day, despite asking to see it beforehand. Also, the prototype was not what I had envisioned or how it had been described. Since then, we have discovered the platform does not have a registration option which, we were assured would be created plus drinking games not incorporated onto the platform, or a profile page. If I had known that these issues had developed, I would have tried to learn the technological side, instead of developing my research skills or insisted we use an expert in the Sheffield area permitting us to have more power over development. We were left scrambling for content, due to my mistake however, I had asked the previous night whether we needed to retrieve the recipes from Cocktails of the World and received no answer. Myself and Sophie spent the morning, with bed heads as we messaged each other about finding content, making jokes about sitting in pjs, in the comfort of our own homes whilst Katie sat in the library.

Developing the prototype, pitching it to an audience with no previous technological skills has taught me to have more confidence in my presentation/development abilities. Furthermore, my task was to develop research for content, legality and privacy issues, which taught me how social media platforms function without law-breaking as well as, how to narrow down research to key texts.

One key text that I found useful is The Facebook Case; you’ll find a breakdown of the article by clicking here. It helped me gain an understanding of the ethical issues you may encounter while developing a social media platform and demonstrated the openness of individuals on their own social media profiles, including myself, when it comes to privacy. I was excited about discovering this text, as it raised a few questions I have since been   considering; why are people so open to strangers? How long did the research take? How big of an issue is social media? The article stirred my interest and made developing the prototype an enjoyable, yet slightly stressful learning experience for an assignment I feared but also, opened my eyes to possibly answering assignment two about social media, which will enable me to delve further into the world of research surrounding social media, especially as this is an older article. There is a wonderment, about discovering what scholars are now saying, with more platforms being developed and I get to dive head first into it.

 

Assignment One

SHAKEITUP: Product Breakdown

 

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Product Logo

Its 1am; intoxicated, cheering women with no previous friendship stand sipping their drinks in the Ladies at Groove Nightclub. The product utilises this alcohol-induced friendship to encourage the interaction of different cultures through the development of a social media platform inspired by Twitter and Facebook. Click here to visit ShakeItUp.

To sign up to the product, you will need an existing WordPress login which will allow you to view the content and begin using ShakeItUp. It has its own domain, which means the product has a specific, catchy URL: http://www.shake-it-up.co.uk/. You’ll simply have to type in the above URL and the product will appear. The product used WordPress.Org which allowed us to create plugins, and add an exterior service to prevent spam, giving you a better experience. When you sign up, you have two options; using the products free version which limits your access to recipes of cocktails/mocktails from seven countries and playing classic drinking games. However, you will still gain full access to the forums where you are encouraged to share tips, cultural knowledge and exchange recipes. Instead you must opt for access to the cheap £2 per year premium option gaining access to 21 countries cocktail/mocktail recipes, and attaining the ability to create your own drinking games to play. You can access the forums, engaging with free and premium members.

You’ll find the product easy to interface with, its set out in a simple layout with bright colours to attract you and fit in with the theme; multiculturality. There is a navigation bar that allows you to flit from one feature to another, which you perceive when you gain access to the product. To gain access to cocktail/mocktail recipes, click the flag of the country you want to experience, it’s interactive, educational and considered a hidden affordance, if you are not aware that clicking the flag, will take you to the countries recipes. The product invites you to share the resulting cocktail/mocktail, an image, impressions and any changes to the recipe in the forums or create a forum, if you cannot find a suitable topic that invites people to join your discussion. It offers drinking games, with access to different levels dependent upon your membership status with classic games such as ‘ring of fire’ available in the unpaid membership, and the option to play classic games alongside creating your own as a premium member. Also, you can share and play your new drinking games across the products with individuals across the world.

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The Product

The purpose of this product is to enhance communication across the world, breaking cultural barriers and educate others about the different cultures. However, it does not have a social media posts page that you can use to update your friends, which you would assume a social media platform contains, also referred to as a false affordance. It should eliminate the need for multiple applications on your phone to; play drinking games and concoct cocktails/mocktails. It will retrieve cultural traditions and lost knowledge allowing you to understand why individuals may act in a certain way and become more accepting of them. It could be problematic and harmful to you if underage drinking occurs, getting ‘irresponsibly’ drunk affecting your careers and life and could attract racist individuals who target others.

There is a void in the market for this type of social media platform. Click here to view the market research. Aside from the premium membership money, the site relies on advertisers paying us, to reach you. Adverts can vary dependent upon the products members, and the country in which they originate. For example, if most members are American students, advertisements that appear will be aimed at them. There are multiple opportunities to grow the product that will make it more successful which has been taken from feedback given to improve your user experience. A private chat bar can be installed for you to be able to have private conversations with new friends. An Instagram inspired development will grant you the ability to view, post and comment on cocktail/mocktail images using #ShakeItUp(nameofdrink). Finally, the site will become a mobile application so; you can chat and play remotely.

Please Find The Video Below Of The Developers Trying Their Own Product Out: