Due to these security issues, regulation and legality become also Political. Government must intervene to mediate between the protection of the citizens data and the warranty of their access to the services provided by big corporations (and their terms and conditions). In this sense, the European Union (EU) has made several attempts to retain privacy in The Cloud through data protection agencies whom must approve third party organisations outside of the EU, providing guidelines they must follow when receiving the data of a member living in any EU country (Winkler, 2011). But, outside of the EU, it is harder to regulate the organisation and countries wherein the data is stored. Mitchell (2012) states the laws of some countries give them the power to confiscate data stored within their borders, this will give them power to sell or access the data and to leverage the capitalist system. Hence, abolishing security and trust of Cloud platforms as well as creating a demand for regulation within the Cloud industries. Furthermore, due to an unregulated Cloud system the data stored is upheld to a lesser standard of law allowing law enforcement and state surveillance agencies to access the data without search warrants. So, via keeping an unregulated system the government also gains access to data that if regulated would be subject to privacy issues. Kshetri (2013) indicates that a lack of cloud-related legal systems and enforcement mechanisms, privacy, security and ownership issues fall into legally gray areas but that previous generations of Cloud technologies regulations favour cloud providers. Therefore, the regulations are unclear and more regulatory frameworks need to be put in place to fix security issues and hold Cloud computing to a higher standard, which will lead individuals to trust in the Cloud platform.
Andrejevic’s (2009) argues that today’s society is mediated by convenience of digital technology, therefore information about the consumers becomes subject to commercial capture. He refers to “function creep” which is the widening of a technology or system beyond the purpose for which it is intended, such as the breach of privacy in the Cloud system. This demonstrates that The Cloud is a data mine for law enforcement and state surveillance agencies which they want to gain access too. Richard Thomas-UK information commissioner (2009) implies that consumers have “sleepwalked into a surveillance society” (2009). Andrejevic (2009) discusses the digital capitalism era which he suggests reproduces existing economic relationships through the generations of new privately controlled productive platforms and resources, the development of the Hybrid Cloud environment allows for organisations and countries to privately control, store and access personal data to improve or create economic relationships therefore, this system is part of the digital capitalism era. Consequently, this raises the issue of a surveillance society and can be considered as a societal implication. By mass storing our data enclosures are created, which allows us to fenced in and monitored. The digital enclosure echoes Bentham’s Panopticon (McMullan, 2015), the internet/data centers are the guard tower and society are the monitored, submissive prisoner.
A Look to The Future
Theorists have written little on the future as security, privacy, third-party access and regulatory issues have taken centre stage however, studies have been completed using questionnaires, asking experts in the technology industry about the future of The Cloud. Anderson and Rainie’s (2010) study results suggest that Cloud computing will become more dominant than the desktop in the next decade due to its ease of access on any device, anywhere. They suggest that browsers will act as the Cloud interface, allowing people to access and store data with ease. It will be weaved into everyday life, as Weiser predicted- an epoch of ubiquitous computing. Furthermore, it is expected that data centers will be smaller, with servers able to hold more information although, experts believe privacy will still be an issue. It is difficult to predict the future, Hybrid Cloud Computing is a step forward but progress is slow…and could easily get creepy.
To summarise, security is the biggest issue organisations face, in developing The Cloud. The regulations are based on software of the past, and can easily be affected by the laws of singular country’s. However, these security issues serve as a hindrance of The Cloud as individuals and organisations are less likely to trust Cloud services. The Cloud is everywhere, it’s a ubiquitous technology that exists around us with many people beginning to use it for example, students using google docs to produce group work. This clearly indicates that Weiser’s prediction, the third wave of computing has begun. But, the progress into the future is slow and unpredictable so, there is little speculation on this technology and some experts believe that desktops and The Cloud will combine hence, the third wave of computing may alter from Weiser’s vision.
Anderson, J., & Lee, R. (2010, June). The future of cloud computing. pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1484000930&Signature=p4rLT4SnKQv194b99Con/7NcK7A=&response content disposition=inline; filename=The future of cloud computing. Retrieved from http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/7135848/the-future-of-cloud-computing.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1484000930&Signature=p4rLT4SnKQv194b99Con%2F7NcK7A%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DThe_future_of_cloud_computing.pdf
Andrejevic, M. (2009). Privacy, exploitation, and the digital enclosure. Amsterdam Law Forum, 1(4), 47–62. Retrieved from http://amsterdamlawforum.org/article/view/94/168
Dourish, P., & Bell, G. (2011). Divining a digital future: Mess and mythology in ubiquitous computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
HPE. (2016, November 29). HPE and Microsoft advance their collaboration around Microsoft azure to accelerate hybrid cloud adoption Retrieved from https://www.hpe.com/us/en/newsroom/news-archive/featured-article/2016/11/HPE-and-
Kshetri, N. (2013). Privacy and security issues in cloud computing: The role of institutions and institutional evolution. Telecommunications Policy, 37(4–5), 372–386. doi:10.1016/j.telpol.2012.04.011
Kuyoro, S. O., IbIkunle, F., & Awodele, O. (2011). Cloud Computing Security Issues and Challenges. International Journal of Computer Networks, 3(5), 247–255. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kresimir_Popovic/publication/224162841_Cloud_computing_security_issues_and_challenges/links/5694ae1308ae820ff072d1ab.pdf
McMullan, T. (2015, July 23). What does the panopticon mean in the age of digital surveillance? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/jul/23/panopticon-digital-surveillance-jeremy-bentham
Mell, P., & Grance, T. (2011). The NIST definition of cloud computing recommendations of the national institute of standards and technology special publication 800-145. Retrieved from http://faculty.winthrop.edu/domanm/csci411/Handouts/NIST.pdf
Microsoft News Center (2015, December 1). Hewlett Packard enterprise and Microsoft announce plans to deliver integrated hybrid IT infrastructure. [online]. Retrieved from https://news.microsoft.com/2015/12/01/hewlett-packard-enterprise-and-microsoft-announce-plans-to-deliver-integrated-hybrid-it-infrastructure/#sm.0000lg287qbezdolyzr1cwcsfb87c#efWrKsfc3hsIz7K2.97
Mitchell, R. B. (2012). ASSOCIATION OF BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMS. Retrieved from http://www.abis-fbd.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/ABIS-2012-Proceedings-Complete.pdf#page=97
Swapna, K., & Gupta, P. (2016). Cloud computing: Security issues and challenges. AADYA -National Journal of Management and Technology (NJMT), 3(2), 149–154. Retrieved from http://184.108.40.206/index.php/AADYA/article/view/103601/74010
Winkler, V. (2011). Securing the cloud: Cloud computer security techniques and tactics. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Wubx13ADbcoC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=%E2%80%9CSecuring+the+Cloud:+Cloud+Computer+Security+Techniques+and+Tactics&ots=oz9wiIDH1c&sig=jmHrE8XDxBdSICiUv1gwT863dVc#v=onepage&q&f=true
Zissis, D., & Lekkas, D. (2012). Addressing cloud computing security issues. Future Generation Computer Systems, 28(3), 583–592. doi:10.1016/j.future.2010.12.006
Hybrid Cloud Computing: Same issues, New Generation