Assignment Two

Hybrid Cloud Computing: Same issues, New Generation

Security

Due to these security issues, regulation and legality become also Political. Government must intervene to mediate between the protection of the citizens data and the warranty of their access to the services provided by big corporations (and their terms and conditions). In this sense, the European Union (EU) has made several attempts to retain privacy in The Cloud through data protection agencies whom must approve third party organisations outside of the EU, providing guidelines they must follow when receiving the data of a member living in any EU country (Winkler, 2011). But, outside of the EU, it is harder to regulate the organisation and countries wherein the data is stored. Mitchell (2012) states the laws of some countries give them the power to confiscate data stored within their borders, this will give them power to sell or access the data and to leverage the capitalist system. Hence, abolishing security and trust of Cloud platforms as well as creating a demand for regulation within the Cloud industries. Furthermore, due to an unregulated Cloud system the data stored is upheld to a lesser standard of law allowing law enforcement and state surveillance agencies to access the data without search warrants. So, via keeping an unregulated system the government also gains access to data that if regulated would be subject to privacy issues. Kshetri (2013) indicates that a lack of cloud-related legal systems and enforcement mechanisms, privacy, security and ownership issues fall into legally gray areas but that previous generations of Cloud technologies regulations favour cloud providers. Therefore, the regulations are unclear and more regulatory frameworks need to be put in place to fix security issues and hold Cloud computing to a higher standard, which will lead individuals to trust in the Cloud platform.

Digital Enclosures

Andrejevic’s (2009) argues that today’s society is mediated by convenience of digital technology, therefore information about the consumers becomes subject to commercial capture. He refers to “function creep” which is the widening of a technology or system beyond the purpose for which it is intended, such as the breach of privacy in the Cloud system. This demonstrates that The Cloud is a data mine for law enforcement and state surveillance agencies which they want to gain access too. Richard Thomas-UK information commissioner (2009) implies that consumers have “sleepwalked into a surveillance society” (2009). Andrejevic (2009) discusses the digital capitalism era which he suggests reproduces existing economic relationships through the generations of new privately controlled productive platforms and resources, the development of the Hybrid Cloud environment allows for organisations and countries to privately control, store and access personal data to improve or create economic relationships therefore, this system is part of the digital capitalism era. Consequently, this raises the issue of a surveillance society and can be considered as a societal implication. By mass storing our data enclosures are created, which allows us to fenced in and monitored. The digital enclosure echoes Bentham’s Panopticon (McMullan, 2015), the internet/data centers are the guard tower and society are the monitored, submissive prisoner.

A Look to The Future

Theorists have written little on the future as security, privacy, third-party access and regulatory issues have taken centre stage however, studies have been completed using questionnaires, asking experts in the technology industry about the future of The Cloud. Anderson and Rainie’s (2010) study results suggest that Cloud computing will become more dominant than the desktop in the next decade due to its ease of access on any device, anywhere. They suggest that browsers will act as the Cloud interface, allowing people to access and store data with ease. It will be weaved into everyday life, as Weiser predicted- an epoch of ubiquitous computing. Furthermore, it is expected that data centers will be smaller, with servers able to hold more information although, experts believe privacy will still be an issue. It is difficult to predict the future, Hybrid Cloud Computing is a step forward but progress is slow…and could easily get creepy.

Conclusion

To summarise, security is the biggest issue organisations face, in developing The Cloud. The regulations are based on software of the past, and can easily be affected by the laws of singular country’s. However, these security issues serve as a hindrance of The Cloud as individuals and organisations are less likely to trust Cloud services. The Cloud is everywhere, it’s a ubiquitous technology that exists around us with many people beginning to use it for example, students using google docs to produce group work. This clearly indicates that Weiser’s prediction, the third wave of computing has begun. But, the progress into the future is slow and unpredictable so, there is little speculation on this technology and some experts believe that desktops and The Cloud will combine hence, the third wave of computing may alter from Weiser’s vision.

References

Anderson, J., & Lee, R. (2010, June). The future of cloud computing. pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1484000930&Signature=p4rLT4SnKQv194b99Con/7NcK7A=&response content disposition=inline; filename=The future of cloud computing. Retrieved from http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/7135848/the-future-of-cloud-computing.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1484000930&Signature=p4rLT4SnKQv194b99Con%2F7NcK7A%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DThe_future_of_cloud_computing.pdf

Andrejevic, M. (2009). Privacy, exploitation, and the digital enclosure. Amsterdam Law Forum, 1(4), 47–62. Retrieved from http://amsterdamlawforum.org/article/view/94/168

Dourish, P., & Bell, G. (2011). Divining a digital future: Mess and mythology in ubiquitous computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

HPE. (2016, November 29). HPE and Microsoft advance their collaboration around Microsoft azure to accelerate hybrid cloud adoption Retrieved from https://www.hpe.com/us/en/newsroom/news-archive/featured-article/2016/11/HPE-and-

Microsoft-Advance-Their-Collaboration-Around-Microsoft-Azure-to-Accelerate-Hybrid-Cloud-Adoption.html

Kshetri, N. (2013). Privacy and security issues in cloud computing: The role of institutions and institutional evolution. Telecommunications Policy, 37(4–5), 372–386. doi:10.1016/j.telpol.2012.04.011

Kuyoro, S. O., IbIkunle, F., & Awodele, O. (2011). Cloud Computing Security Issues and Challenges. International Journal of Computer Networks, 3(5), 247–255. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kresimir_Popovic/publication/224162841_Cloud_computing_security_issues_and_challenges/links/5694ae1308ae820ff072d1ab.pdf

McMullan, T. (2015, July 23). What does the panopticon mean in the age of digital surveillance? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/jul/23/panopticon-digital-surveillance-jeremy-bentham

Mell, P., & Grance, T. (2011). The NIST definition of cloud computing recommendations of the national institute of standards and technology special publication 800-145. Retrieved from http://faculty.winthrop.edu/domanm/csci411/Handouts/NIST.pdf

Microsoft News Center (2015, December 1). Hewlett Packard enterprise and Microsoft announce plans to deliver integrated hybrid IT infrastructure. [online]. Retrieved from https://news.microsoft.com/2015/12/01/hewlett-packard-enterprise-and-microsoft-announce-plans-to-deliver-integrated-hybrid-it-infrastructure/#sm.0000lg287qbezdolyzr1cwcsfb87c#efWrKsfc3hsIz7K2.97

Mitchell, R. B. (2012). ASSOCIATION OF BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMS. Retrieved from http://www.abis-fbd.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/ABIS-2012-Proceedings-Complete.pdf#page=97

Swapna, K., & Gupta, P. (2016). Cloud computing: Security issues and challenges. AADYA -National Journal of Management and Technology (NJMT), 3(2), 149–154. Retrieved from http://52.172.159.94/index.php/AADYA/article/view/103601/74010

Winkler, V. (2011). Securing the cloud: Cloud computer security techniques and tactics. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Wubx13ADbcoC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=%E2%80%9CSecuring+the+Cloud:+Cloud+Computer+Security+Techniques+and+Tactics&ots=oz9wiIDH1c&sig=jmHrE8XDxBdSICiUv1gwT863dVc#v=onepage&q&f=true

Zissis, D., & Lekkas, D. (2012). Addressing cloud computing security issues. Future Generation Computer Systems, 28(3), 583–592. doi:10.1016/j.future.2010.12.006

Hybrid Cloud Computing: Same issues, New Generation

Assignment Two

Hybrid Cloud Computing: Same issues, New Generation

In the next section of my theoretical discussion about the development of Hybrid Cloud Computing, I will discuss the implications of this technology on security- questioning whether our data is safe and secure and data privacy, political implications- how this technology is legislated and utilised via the government and the problems around where the ‘data center’ physically is. Andrejevic’s (2009) digital enclosure is defined as the “creation of an interactive realm wherein every action, interaction and transaction generates information about itself…” and that as customers participate in the new digital enclosures, it opens you up to surveillance and monitoring. Finally, I will discuss the future of cloud computing before summarising my discussion.

 

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The Issues with Cloud Computing

Privacy

A major issue in Cloud Computing is security. Kuyoro, IbIkunle and Awodele (2011) imply most cloud computing services are provided by a third-party provider whom owns the infrastructure thereby, having access to stored data which they may use for capital gain in their own organisations. It is important for trust in a Cloud environment, which has been slow to gain by those producing Cloud platforms as individuals and organisations prefer to be in strict control of their own information while a Cloud platform removes that control placing data on servers around the world. Zissis and Lekkas (2012) state it is “impossible to place a virtual moat around an organisations castle…ability to clearly identify, authenticate, authorise who or what is accessing the assets of an organisation…” inferring that it is impossible to completely secure the data organisations store on the cloud and, that Cloud organisations or the third-parties who store the data need access to keep your data secure further, implying trust is important in the Cloud environment.

There is a threat of data compromise as more parties, devices and applications are accessing the stored data. This is because the more access points to the data, the less secure it becomes which allows hackers/criminals and uninvited organisations access to the stored data. Also, a question around ownership, arises in the analysis of security. Kannankott and Gupta (2016) say that the person who uploaded or stored the data, owns the data however, they have no control where the data is placed within the Cloud environment. Furthermore, they analyse data privacy regarding this question of ownership and indicate multiple legal concerns: for instance, when the data is moved around the system by crossing jurisdictions. Data location is important in consideration of security issues because it is subject to privacy laws in the country it resides, but not necessarily in the place where the headquarters are stationed (Winkler, 2011). Developers in Hybrid Cloud Computing claim this system gives the customer more control however, these security issues such as privacy, data location and third-party access have plagued each version of Cloud Computing hence, it is probable it will plague the next generation of Cloud software too. Through accessing customer’s private data-a breach of privacy, or allowing third-parties to, security carries also ethical implications consumers should consider.

Please click here to continue reading my commentary on Hybrid Cloud Computing

Assignment Two

Hybrid Cloud Computing: Same issues, New Generation

Introduction

Hybrid Cloud Computing is the next generation of Cloud software, it is the future of The Cloud. Hybrid Cloud Computing is the mixture of Public Cloud services, with Private Cloud Services. Yet, each embodiment of The Cloud receives the same critiques. They are still being debated now ultimately, affecting the development of Hybrid Cloud Computing. Theorists have debated many issues including state surveillance and monitoring (Andrejevic, 2009), risk of data breeches including hackers (Kuyoro, IbIkunle & Awodele, 2011), a question of trust in the Cloud infrastructure including confidentiality and privacy- who have access to the data (Zissis and Lekkas, 2012), and the secondary use of data (Winkler, 2011). Firstly, you must understand what Cloud Computing is, at a basic level it is “data centers or server farms” (Kerr and Tang, 2012). Mell and Grance (2011) expand upon this stating it is “…a shared pool of configurable computing resources e.g. networks, services, storage, application and services”. In simple terms, if you run a business and acquire a lot of data which needs storing, take pictures on your mobile or tablets or create a document that you need access to later, it can be saved to ‘The Cloud’. It’s a set of servers, in a big room somewhere (data centers), which hold all your data allowing you to have access to it creating a feeling that technology is everywhere, can be accessed anywhere, at any time. It is a ubiquitous technology.

Ubiquitous Computing is considered as the third wave of computing, it is the period in technology where it recedes into the background so, Cloud Computing is a ubiquitous technology. Mell and Grance (2011) suggest this within their analysis “a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access…” hence, the epoch of ubiquitous computing has begun within the technological world. Dourish and Bell (2011:9) quote Weiser (1991) describing ubiquitous technologies as “the most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are

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My Cloud Software

indistinguishable from it”. The Cloud platform has ‘weaved’ itself into everyday life for example, when you purchase a laptop Cloud software is offered as part of your deal, or comes readily installed onto the computer. Knowhow offer cloud services as part of purchasing their insurance for your laptops.

Over a year ago, Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) and Microsoft announced their partnership and plans to develop Hybrid Cloud Computing through Microsoft Azure- Microsoft’s Cloud using HPE’s infrastructure and services. Microsoft News Center (2015) published an article providing details of their partnership, claiming their aim is to help customers optimise their IT environments through Hybrid Cloud Computing. To solidify their partnership to the public, two software programs were released during their partnership announcement. They are HPE Converged 250 for Microsoft Cloud Platform System and HPE Flexible Capacity and Support for Azure demonstrating they had begun working towards the next generation of Cloud Computing beforehand, producing working support systems. Schwartz (2015) describes the HPE Converged 250 for Microsoft Cloud Platform System as “…a converged rack mountable system designed to run Microsoft Azure within the data center” simply the beginning stages of producing a Cloud Platform out of their two services. However, technology-based blogs run by experts indicate that there have been concerns about the partnership such as the similarity to Amazon Web Services whom are also producing Hybrid Cloud Computing demonstrating that they are not the first to attempt to bring Cloud Computing into the next generation. Also, the market for Cloud software and platforms is continuously developing, with competitors bringing new products to sell to consumers which has left some concerns that both organisations may fall behind in the market.

Around five months ago, at a Discover London Tech Conference representatives from the partnership made three announcements about their progress in the Hybrid Cloud environment which will be released later this year. Firstly, new enhancements to HPE Flexible Capacity and Support for Azure that will coincide with the Azure Stack Release, to include support for it. Secondly, HPE/Azure Stack Solution that they have built on a ProLiant DL380 Server- a complete compute storage, network and software system. It has been explained as an “integrated system that will deliver Azure-compatible infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) and platform-as-a-service (PaaS) to businesses from their on-premises data center’s (HPE, 2016). IaaS and PaaS are the service models, which The Cloud service is built as for example, you could purchase a Cloud service which offers ‘platforms’ to you as the customer. Thirdly, HPE Oneview and Microsoft Operations Management Suite and this allows the customer to retain visibility and control across their Hybrid Cloud System.

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